Old Testament History Notes



Dr. King records notes from the Old Testament of the Bible. Much of the focus is on Isaiah and the downfall of Jerusalem.

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Old Testament History Notes
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[Page 1] I would say the D of is an uncompromising [me?]. For many reasons I form this conclusion. First, he see[s] God as [Crossed out:MS:the] one controlling the destiny of of [sic] the universe. Second he declares that God cannot be likened to any image made by man. Think, God rules in history not by physical force, but be moral government. He sees God as one who " feeds his flock like a Shepard" To the weak and helpless he gives strength. [Page 2] The servant, in my opinion is a collective body for the people of Israel. We must remember the ease with which the oriental could personify, they could the most personal detail to a collective body, "Gray hairs are on his neck", says Hosea not of a man but of a nation. Therefore, individual allusion do not necessarily compel an individual interpretation. [Page 3] [Mal?] came in an age of discontent and disillusion. The new age had not came and the people were losing determination[.] It was M who [Crossed out:MS:the] attempted to help the people overcome the depression by putting [Illegible] on a higher plane. [Page 4] He was a susceptible, deeply emotional nature. He had an outburst of deep emotion [Illegible] the impulse to be a prophet had been an irresistible one; but he had been rewarded by nothing but hostility and distraction. 21. C21[1-10] C27-[29?] 20 C 24 C-26 22 C-28 There will come the "New covenant which is to [exist?] not in an external system of hours, but in a law written in the heart, filling all men with the knowledge of Jehovah, and promoting them to immediate and spontaneous obedience. 23 A 32ch B 38ch [Page 5] Although there is much in E. which is naturalistic, he stands as a historical figure of first importance. Put of a storm-loud appearing in the month there gradually emerged the likeness of four [linny?] creatures each with four wings and four faces and all moving together. He also saw that they enclosed a kind of quadrangular chariot resting on four wheels, which had an independent motion of its own, though always in harmony with that of the four cherubim. The main elements of the symbolism are suggested, no doubt, partly by the two colossal cherubim in the temple at J[erusalem?]. All this symbolizes the supreme majesty of Jehovah. Moreover, it symbolizes the universality of the divine presence[.] [Page 6] Isaiah Sermon Chap 31-(1-15) Ethical monotheism Henotheism Baal was one or many local deities usually considered as the authorities of the soils fertility. [Page 7] In the essay we get the theme as well as theory in Emerson we get the theory but not the sence [sense]. [Page 8] Holiness Separateness Isail[Isaiah?] Two part facts were before Isaiah and may be said to form his whole teachings. One was the moral badness of Israeli?s life, taken a long with their stupid misunderstanding of what their God required by them They were [MS: Illegible] in Kin worship lavish of sacrifice to him and careful to observe the return yet, they were somberly immortal, To Isaiah God was holy, just and powerful [Inserted text left margin: Tell Devon to never show simplicity [MS: illegible] [Page 9] This first ans[wer] to it led immediately to the another vital question by it. He saw that the overthrow of one empire led world to ascendance of another, hardly less cruel. Who would destroy the Chaldeans What nation will end-ure. I ans[wer] this pro by showing that there is an essential different in the character of men. The character of the unjust is not straight. The seed of their own destruction. Moreover they are internally weak through extremely strong. The faith therefore the nation that [Crossed out: and] is founded upon moral principles will outlive all disasters. [Page 10] But amid all this we see that ray of hope. [I?] was a priest-prophet who was among the captives[.] He was taken in the first deportation from J[erusalem?] by the Babylonians[.] He served as the friend, pastor, and teacher of his fellow-[people?] for more than [seventy?] years. Although there is much in E, which is naturalistic, he stands as a historical figure of first importance. According to E the whole history of Israel had gone astray. Idolatry began in Egypt. According to E God would have destroyed Egypt but he restrained. God saved the Hebrews in order to save his own name. To [Crossed out:MS:seduce] destroy the Hebrews would bring about a [Crossed out:MS:destruction] reduction of himself. [Page 11] the object of the invasion- of [reposing?] a barrier to the aggression of the system [A?] [Illegible]; the object of invading Judah was to force that country to [Illegible] the coalition. Isaiah prophesied in Jerusalem [Illegible] the regions of there succeeding Kings, Jonathan, Ahaz, and [Hezekiah?]. Isaiah charges the people with unfaithfulness and ingratitude[:?] he compares them to unnatural children who have [disowned?] their father. However much Judah suffered for her sinners there must also be a [remnant?] who should be ready to start a new and better life. The prophets appeal is to internal reconstruction. The wonder child which Isiaiah spoke of was to be a political King. [Text outside left margin: To meet Ahaz's distrust Isaiah [Illegible] the [Illegible] of the child who inspite of [Illegible] through which his country must first pass, is still the symble[symbol] of its deliverance] [Page 12] Isaiah concept of holiness- Since Yahweh was supremely good, it followed that anything or person set apart for him must also be good and the nation especially consecrated to him must also justify its position be a higher moral standard. Yahweh needed Israel for his self expression. Israel was his people, therefore he could not suffer her to be destroyed; Jerusalem was the spot in which he had chosen to set his name. Therefore the city could not be entered by a foreign enemy. At first [Illegible] as applied to human affairs it indicates a separation from the ordinary and the secular, a thing set apart for the sale use and enjoyment of the deity [Text outside left margin:But this invasion did no mean a complete destruction or as it meant to Hosea] [Page 13] pride egotism [drunkenness?] Israel is a vineyard. Instead of giving justice, they give injustice [Page 14] Idolatry, [satan?] worship and impure Jehovah worship are some of the main sins of [Jer?]. The rich were [Illegible] going and indifferent toward religion. The people of J[erusalem] were incorrigible?] reckless toward the lesson God had written in nature and in history. The religious leaders were immoral incompetent . The [Crossed out:MS:priest were] faithfulness of the priest was important. The people were dressing in foreign apparel. These in [Illegible] are some of the [social?] and religious sins. [Naham?] spoke in the seventh century- 663-606 be proclaim the certainty of the fall of Nineveh [Page 15] [Naham?] was interested in the outcome because the nation which in 722 B.C. had destroyed the Northern K is now being destroyed. The Naham[her?] downfall was judgement which Jehovah had brought upon the cruelty of Israel's oppressor's. The first which [Illegible?] [preach?] to J[erusalem?] is that of the evil prevailing over the [neighbors?][.] He says that the people of J[erusalem?] are [wicked?] yet, they prevail over the good. He also says the J[erusalem?] does nothing about it. The [ours?] was that he would rise up the [Illegible] who would devastate Judah. He showed how the [Illegible] were invest[ed] with powerful [Crossed out: MS: Illegible] weapons of war[.] This [I?] [Page 16] Zephaniah ? Idolatry, star ? worship, and impure Jehovah worship are rampart. The rich are easy ? going and indifferent to religion. The people of Jerusalem are incorrigible reckless of the lesson that God has written in nature and history. Their leaders premise, prophets, priests are immoral or incompetent. The judgment is practically inevitable Nahum He was a Judean speaking in the seventh century 663-606 The theme is the certainty of the fall of Nineveh Habakkuk Patience and faith are the watchwords of Habakkuk Jeremiah He saw no salvation in ritual. He saw that the root of evil was in the hearts and that no reformation was possible till the heart itself was changed. It is for this reason that he called upon the people to [MS: illegible] their hearts. A real solution could never be found in a law books but only in the law written upon the human heart. The temple is not indispensable III 4 [Page 17] Lamentations Good may be our form calamity. The love of Jehovah never - comes and his pity never fails Dentero [?]-Isaiah We pass into a different historical and theological atmosphere than that of the aesthetic prophecies of Isaiah. The very first work, comfort go strikes a new note; in the main the massage of Isaiah has been one of judgment. It is a [MS: illegible], cardinal and [MS: illegible] principle, of prophecy that the prophet addresses himself, at least primarily, to the intuition of his own times. Prophecy in a moral, not a magical thing, and nothing would be gained by the delivery of a massage over a century and a half before it was needed to a people to whom it was irrelevant and unintelligible. The literacy styles of these chapters also differ. The very attitude &[and] prophecy marks the book as late; it would not be [Page 18] the function of the servant is to give light to the Gentiles in other words to bring the world to a knowledge of Jehovah possible in a pre-ethic prophet. The servant is undoubtedly a collective term for the people of Israel. We must remember the ease with which the oriental could personify and apply even the most personal detail to a collective body. ?Gray hairs are upon him,? says Hosea, not of a man but of a nation. Clearly, therefor individual allusion do not necessary [to] compel an individual interruption. One passage expressly identifies the servant with Israel XI [MS: illegible] 3 Trito Isaiah [Page 19] Ezra-Neh[emiah]covers the period extending from the release of the captive in Babylon by Cyprus to the event which took place in Jerusalem in 432 The author of E-N [Ezra-Nehemiah] is known as the Chronicler. He was a member of the Priestly school of thought. The purpose of E-N [Ezra-Nehemiah]is to show the significance of religions ordinances connected with temple worship. They were purely interested in religious observations. The name E-N [Ezra-Nehemiah] are used because the author used as a basis diaries and personal memoirs of these men. For many instances he makes verbatim expressions [Page 20] According to Zephaniah some of the sins of Judah are adultery star worship, and impure Jehovah worship. Judah [Crossed out: [MS: Illegible] are incorrigible reckless of the lesson God has written in future and in man. He also criticizes the faithlessness of the prophet, priest. Nahum is proclamation that of the certainty of the fall of Nineveh. The first problem that he presents to Jehovah was that of the wicked seeming to prevail ever the good. He says that the people of Judah are [MS: illegible] and lawless, yet there seem to prevail over the righteous. He goes on to say the J [Judah] down nothing about it. J [Judah] was to this problem was that [Page 21] According to Zephaniah some of the sins of Judah are idolatry star worship, and impure Jehovah worship, Judah [Crossed out: MS: illegible] are incorrigible reckless of the lesson God has written in nature and in man. He also [MS:illegible] the faithlessness of the prophet, priest Nahum's proclamation is that of the certainty of the fall of Nineveh. The first problem that he presents to Jehovah was that of the wicked seeming to prevail over the good. He says that the people of Judah are wicked and lawless, yet them seem to prevail over the righteous. He goes on to says that [MS:illegible] does nothing about it. [MS: illegible] to this problem was that [Page 22] he would raise up the Chaldeans who whould [would] would [sic] devastate Judah with all of her powerful weapons. This reply to it by [MS:illegible] led to another problem. It saw the overthrow of one empire led only to the ascendancy of another hardly less cruel. Who whould [would] destroy the Chaldeans? What kind of nation will endure. I ans[wer] this problem by showing that there is a profound difference in character of men. The character of the unjust is not str[a]ight. They carry the seed of their [MS:illegible] destruction. Moreover they are internally weak although externally strong. Therefore the righteous shall live by their faith. Moreover, the nation that is founded upon moral principal shall outlive all disaster. [Page 23] E distinct contribut[e] to the rel of I was that of person religion. He declares with all degree of [MS:illegible] "the soul that servied it shall [MS:illegible]." Contrary to the doctrines that had swept Hebrew history, E saw each man accountable to God for his doings. [MS:illegible] the hebrews conceived of group religion. If we will remember in the case of Achar his entire family was killed for a sin he committed. himself to the situalism of his own time. Prophesy is a moral, not a magical thing, and nothing could be gained by delivering a message a century before it was needed, to a people to whom it would be irrelevant and unintelligible. [Page 24] According to E. J will be restored and the [MS:illegible] King will be included. This restoralism because of Jehovah's own indication. He will give Isreal a new spirit and a new idea. According to [MS: illegible] this restoration will not merely include material prosperity, But it will bring about world wide recognition to J D. S means second Isaiah the author of this book is unknown. In him it seems that Old testement reaches its highest expression. In the portion of Isaiah we entered into a different theological and historical atmosphere. The first words, "Confort ye", streches a new note. In the main the message of Isaiah had been of of [sic] judgment. It is [MS:illegible] that a prophet addressed. [Page 25] [Inserted in margin: From each according to his ability [Underlined: to each " " " needs] God is working through history for the salvation of man] [Inserted text in left margin: theories] The old testament is a religious interpretation of history. Types of interpretations of History 1. Religious 2. economic 3. racial (biological) 4. geographical The method to overcome Baal was by murder and revolution. God instructs the prophets to annoint the men who were to do the mu[r]dering Baal- [MS:illegible] Melkart- One Ball who is the chief God. Astoreth his wief the God of animal productivity. Elijah-Zealous for Jehovah an advocate of justice. He is a [MS:illegible] [Inserted text in left margin: prophet-a zeal for justice [MS:illegible]] [Page 26] [Inserted text in margin: Israel - Northern Kingdom Judah-Southern " "] We find party politic in Solomon rise to the throne. Here we see [MS:illegible] favoring Solomon and others favoring Absalom's. [Underlined:Bible Dee] The relation of ligion to the State? There is a unity of Church and state. The prophet enters right into the situation. The prophet or seen even anointed the King. We see a revolution uprising in Israel lead by the priest Ahijah who instigated Jeasloam to do the job. Rehoboam - Judah [MS:illegible] Joaboam - Isreal [Page 27] [Text outside left margin:Elijah Elisha [John?]] the prophetic revaluation was a revolt was a revolt against civilization. He found the old nomadic civilization. In John we get a prophet and begins a [religious?] political coup d??t. They [seeded?] to bring about the [Illegible] by [force?] on the [Communist party?]. II King 17-23 Why the Kingdom fill idolatry and [Illegible] [Text inserted above ?Kingdom?: [Israel?] [Text outside left margin: Illegible] [Page 28] [Text in top margin:Amos 2 [Chapter] 6 vers[se]-economic slavery] the priest is a [Illegible] of the [Prahis?]. Morever,he is your [Illegible?] The prophet-one into [where?] [badly?] [Illegible] entered the word of God in such [a] way that he becomes a barrier of the message of God. [Himas?]- His calling Chap 7-11-17 Social Condition into which Amos is [Illegible] himself-Chap 1-3-4 perpetuator of the praxis [Page 29] [Text in upper margin of page: Psychology of Religion] [Text outside of margin: Hosea 1-(1-11)] Hosea- In this book [Crossed out:MS:of] we get the nature of love Hosea 4 verse 1 Chap[ter] some sections of Hosea are writing be later editions [Page 30] lisent [lisente?] lisions [?] vienne[?] viennes[?] venian[?] veniez[?] vemmemt[?] [Page 31] Social pay ? 1:45 M [Monday] SCL Con 8:00 tues [Tuesday] SCL Shaker 8:40 tues[Tuesday] T212 Amer[ican?] Lit[erature] 10:40 tues [Tuesday] [Page 32] To Hebrew God was not only the source of Good but also of evil spirit. Davids Introduction To Public Life We find that Saul, the King of Isreal, suffers from epilepsy or acute melancholia. Following the [Crossed out: MS: illegible] advice of his servants. Saul consented to have them secure some one skilled in playing the lipe to sooth him, when these attacks seized him. It was thus that David the son of Jesse, was brought to the court of Saul. David The Outlaw He was a victim of [MS:illegible] blackmail and every possible means to receive of food. At this point we begin to see the inner strife within the Hebrews. [Page 33] Mans moral ideas are far beyond his moral practice [Inserted text in left margin: sermon Hosea 6 chap[ter]] Armos was an uncompromising monotheist In the affairs of men there is no such thing as chance Calamity as well as [Crossed out:MS:illegible] prosperity comes from him. Out of his own experience As I love my wife, God loves Israel Hosea believed in internal reformation and not to war and external devices The Israelites served Baal for what they could get out of him. Amos shows the invalidation of ritual. Hosea shows the manner as being untrue. Jehovah demands ethical priciple [principle] rather than ritualistic. [Page 35] [Inserted text: dejeun tratzky Kerensky] [Inserted text:We go from a Matrolineal [Matrilineal?] to a Patrolineal [Patrilineal?] from unorganized to organized Int - Away of life developing out of unconscious act] [Inserted text: timbres-stamps] [Page 36] [Inserted text: First inangural adress Benjamin Thomas Jefferson] [Inserted text: History [Foreign] Policies [Underlined:Business Week]] [Inserted text: To him who thinks, To him who fells life is a tragedy] [Inserted text: [Circled: Reprolate] resurrection] [Page 37] [Inserted text: 606]
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