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Black Nationalism

Associated Archive Content : 34 results

"Harlem Wants To Know"

In this document, residents of Harlem question the trial in the murder of Malcom X.

American Education: Segregation, Northern Style

This article from American Education focuses on the problem of de facto segregation in Northern and Southern cities that results from discrimination in housing and contributes to further housing discrimination and minority unemployment. De facto segregation is as detrimental as legalized (de jure) segregation. The author provides an overview of efforts around the country to eliminate segregation in public schools and some of the difficulties encountered.

Go to Black Africa

An unknown author writes to Dr. King advising that he return to Africa if he is unhappy with his plight in America.

Hungry Club Speech

This document is a draft copy of Dr. King's Hungry Club Speech, in which he speaks on the subject "America's Chief Moral Dilemma." He states that the dilemma is "the means by which we live have out distanced the ends for which we live." Dr. King thoroughly discusses the three major evils that contribute to this dilemma: the evil of racism, the evil poverty, and the evil of war. He also discusses the progress of the Civil Rights Movement as it enters a new phase of fighting for "genuine equality."

Letter from Alfonzo Henderson to Afro-Americans

This letter from ARIDO (Afro-American Resource Industrial Development Organization) president Alfonzo Henderson outlines the organization's program goals.

Letter from Bayard Rustin to MLK

Bayard Rustin writes to Dr. King inviting him to attend a conference sponsored by the A. Philip Randolph Education Fund. The conference focuses on "The Role of Press in a Period of Social Crisis."

Letter From Birmingham City Jail

This version of Dr. King's "Letter From Birmingham Jail," published by the American Friends Service Committee, also includes the original statement made by the clergyman that prompted Dr. King's response. The eight clergymen described Dr. King's actions as "unwise and untimely." In his response, Dr. King references biblical and historical figures to illustrate why the Civil Rights Movement can no longer wait. He also expresses his frustration with many within organized religion and the moderate white American.

Letter from Ellen Tamaki to MLK

Ellen M. Tamaki, from Berkeley, California, has a list of questions for Dr. King that center on accusations of "merg[ing] the peace movement with the civil rights struggle." The writer references Dr. King's stance on the Vietnam War and asks about the motivation for his opinions.

Letter from Ida Passano to MLK

Mrs. Ida Kemp Passano sends encouraging words to Dr. King along with her contribution to his efforts.

Letter from Lewis W. Jones to MLK

Lewis W. Jones worries about Dr. King because of the recent turmoil he has faced. He hopes that the struggles King has faced recently does not undermine his position in the movement.

Letter from MLK to Newsweek Editor Joseph Cummings

Dr. King writes Joseph B. Cummings, Jr. in response to a headline article suggesting that Dr. King had advocated that Negroes turn to a new ideology in their struggle – Communism or the Muslim Movement. He wonders how his statement on a television program in Cleveland could be so misinterpreted.

Letter from Paul Noe to MLK

Mr. Noe shares his ideas and comments with Dr. King regarding the Civil Rights Movement. Mr. Noe describes the Civil Rights Movement as the "exclusive domain of the black man" and discusses how he has felt very left out of the movement due to his race. He hopes that the Civil Rights Movement will become the "domain of all Americans" and will change its appeal from racism to decency.

Letter from Philip Harnden to MLK

After reading Dr. King's book, "Why We Can't Wait," Philip Harnden, a sophomore at Wheaton College, writes Dr. King expressing his newly changed insight on the Negro struggle. Mr. Harnden inquires about Dr. King's nonviolent approach and the black community beginning to abandon nonviolence by adopting more aggressive means to achieve their goals.

Letter from Robert T. Bowen to MLK

In this letter, Mr. Bowen requests the assistance of Dr. King in establishing a black nation outside of the United States.

Malcolm X Trio Still Marking Time Waiting for Trial

This article documents the legal aftermath of the assassination of Malcolm X on February 21, 1965. It also discusses the three men accused of the killing and reports comments made by the lawyers involved in the case.

Memorandum from Benjamin F. Payton Regarding Meredith Mississippi March

Benjamin F. Payton, Executive Director of the Commission on Religion and Race of the National Council of Churches, constructs this document as a debriefing on the Meredith Mississippi March. It is evident that the march is symbolic of the nation's struggle with racial conflict and aims to dismantle fear among African American voter registration. James Meredith, Mississippi citizen and first African American to desegregate the University of Mississippi, had organized and led the march.

National Council of Churches Conference of Negro Leaders Opening Remarks

A. Philip Randolph makes remarks at the Conference of Negro Leaders National Council of Churches about the future of the Civil Rights Movement. Randolph expresses the importance of continuing the fight of social justice through civil rights, economics, housing and poverty.

Newspaper Article "Negro Nation Ratified"

This article discusses a group of black nationalists who ratified a declaration of independence for a separate Negro nation. The new nation was named the "Republic of New Africa."

Proposal for Black Independence

Al Shabazz writes up a program for Black independence. The proposal suggests two program options for leaders to choose from. Once the program has been decided the leader would go out and gather the opinion of the masses. Next, the program would implement unconventional education along with employment and survival skills. The program also promotes an independent nation with alliances from those of all races. The program promotes black revolution and the demise of the elite White Supremacist.

SCLC Resolution "To Fulfill These Rights"

The SCLC releases a copy of the resolution, "To Fulfill These Rights," created by the SCLC's Alabama staff and sent to the White House Conference. Hosea Williams states in the resolution that Negroes who voted in the primary were intimidated by white segregationist to not vote in the run-off.

SCLC Retreat November 1967

Reverend Andrew Young discusses civil disobedience at the SCLC's retreat in South Carolina. Dr. King and Jesse Jackson also make presentations at the retreat. Jesse Jackson states "we are too conscious of philosophy" and mentions "what's significant to the people is jobs or income." Dr. King talks about upcoming projects that will involve civil disobedience.

SNCC - SCLC Alabama Staff Meeting

Randolph Blackwell updates Andrew Young of the recent SCLC and SNCC joint meeting intended to resolve any conflicts between the two organizations and their initiatives within the state of Alabama. The mounting tension between the two civil rights organizations is attributed to the rise of Black Panther Party chapters throughout the South, a phenomenon from which SCLC intends to distance itself.

Speech at Chicago Freedom Movement Rally

Dr. King speaks of the urgent need to address issues in the city such as deplorable housing conditions, discrimination in employment, segregation and overcrowded schools. He urges his listeners to commit to fill up the jails if necessary, register every eligible Negro to vote, withhold rent from slumlords, withdraw economic support from companies that don't hire Negroes, and support Negro-owned businesses. He stresses the importance of using nonviolent methods.

Telegram from Joseph Anderson to MLK

Joseph Anderson urges Dr. King to "call forth a day of prayer" to ease the uproar, most notably overshadowing such U.S. cities as Detroit and Newark during the long, hot summer of 1967.

Telegram from Malcolm X to MLK

Malcolm X offers Dr. King assistance with the situation in St. Augustine, including the organization of self-defense units.

The Influence of the Right and Left in the Civil Rights Movement

Activist Bayard Rustin prepared these remarks for the Negro Leadership Conference in New York in January 1965. He discusses the influence of the American right, the traditional Communist left and the unaffiliated left (the Thirties veterans and the spontaneous left of Harlem and Mississippi).

The Lonesome Road

Stanley D. Levison sends Dr. King an article from The Washington Post titled "The Lonesome Road," which is a review of Dr. Kings book, "Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community?" Martin Duberman, the author of the article, explains Dr. King's reasons for writing the book, and Duberman also provides a favorable review of the publication.

The Many Faces of Black Power

The author identifies several approaches to the notion of Black Power. The author concludes that Black Power is "a programmatic concept capable of objective definition", "it presents many difficulties", and that the negatives have outweighed the positives.

The Modern Negro Activist

Dr. King profiles the emergent young Negro civil rights activist who is college-educated, creative, brave and committed to the discipline of non-violence. He attributes the activist's diligence to a keen awareness that they inhabit a world on the cusp of positive social change and that they will have the privilege to direct that change. They are no longer to be an imitator of his white counterpart, but rather an initiator and leader in this new age.

The New Leader: MLK's Letter from Birmingham Jail

The New Leader, a New York-based biweekly magazine, published Dr. King?s Letter from Birmingham City Jail. This historic piece is a response to the views of some fellow clergymen that Dr. King's methods are both "unwise and untimely.? King's critics had branded him an "outside agitator" and an extremist who should not be advocating lawbreaking. Dr. King responds with this letter and references prominent historical figures to counter these criticisms.

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