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Carmichael, Stokely

b. 1941 - d. 1998

Stokely Carmichael was born in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and emigrated to the U.S. in 1952. He earned his bachelor's degree from Howard University in 1964. He disagreed with many in the nonviolent movement and promoted self-defense among African Americans. He founded the Lowndes County Freedom Organization (LCFO) in 1965, an all black independent political party which chose a black panther as its symbol. LCFO is widely regarded as the forerunner of the Black Panther Party. In 1966 Carmichael was elected chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and used the rallying cry “Black Power.” After visiting Africa as a guest of African independence leader Sekou Toure, Carmichael became a devoted Pan-Africanist. He changed his name to Kwame Toure. In 1973 he made Guinea his home.

Associated Archive Content : 81 results

Letter from John Roney to Dr. King

Mr. Roney explains to Dr. King that the government will create oppressed social hierarchy within society. As a result, he requests that Dr. King responds to his plea or he will be believe that the rumors of government oppression are true.

Letter from John Shirley to MLK

John Shirley, of the Oxford University Cherwell Newspaper, poses a list of questions to Dr. King concerning Civil Rights, the Vietnam War, and the emergence of Black Power groups. Shirley assures the Reverend of his gratitude for any feedback he may provide, and informs him of the circulation of the literature at being well over 10,000 within the University.

Letter from John T. Walker to MLK

On behalf of the Washington Cathedral. John Walker extends an invitation for Dr. King to preach at the Cathedral and articulate the true premise of the Poor People's Campaign to their congregation. Walker believes that Dr. King's physical presence will help eliminate doubts that this civil disobedience campaign will turn to violence. Dr. King is would eventually preach the final sermon of his life on March 31 at the Washington Cathedral under the subject "Remaining Awake Through a Great Revolution."

Letter from Joseph Berke to MLK

Joseph Berke replies to Dr. King's response to an invitation to attend the Dialectics of Liberation and shares his content with one of Dr. King's speeches on the war in Vietnam.

Letter from Lloyd E. Abbey to Mr. Duncan J. Parks about Communism

In this letter Lloyd E. Abbey reacts to an article in the Star-Gazette. Abbey asserts that "Our survival, in relation to the ideology of communism, is very questionable" and "The principle fault... ... the nine old men...," namely Dr. King, Benjamin Spock, William Coffin, Rap Brown, 'Hooligan' [Stokely] Carmichael and others. Abbey connects this to the war in Vietnam.

Letter from M. Emelene Wishart to MLK

M. Emelene Wishart is concerned that Dr. King is weakening the fight for civil rights by campaigning to end the Vietnam War. Wishart asks Dr. King if he is attempting to "embarrass the US administration or beat Carmichael in the civil disobedience game."

Letter from Mae Martin to MLK

Mae Martin of Little Rock, Arkansas, writes to Dr. King in response to one of his public statements. She speaks about race relations in her city and points out that there is good and bad within both the white and black communities.

Letter from Martin Kessler to MLK

Martin Kessler sends Dr. King an article by Daniel P. Moynihan entitled "Is There Really an Urban Crisis?" Moynihan addresses issues of the economic and social conditions in America in the interview with Challenge Magazine.

Letter from Mrs. Eugene B. Stinson to Mr. Roy Wilkins

Mrs. Stinson of Pennsylvania writes Mr. Wilkins suggesting that all of the major civil rights organizations merge together to form one organization. She believes this will create a unified front in the fight for racial equality. In addition, Mrs. Stinson provides a list of suggestions this new organization could implement to facilitate change.

Letter from Richard W. Boone to MLK

A letter from Richard Boone, Executive Director of Citizens Crusade Against Poverty, to Dr. King, enclosing the preliminary draft of the C.C.A.P.'s training proposal to the Ford Foundation.

Letter from Robert Bondy to MLK

Though a long time supporter of Dr. King, Robert Bondy, criticizes for Dr. King for mixing the issues of civil rights and Vietnam. He argues that speaking out against Vietnam has only further inflamed opponents of the Civil Rights Movement, and Dr. King has thrown back the movment "for a long time to come."

Letter from Roy M. Green to MLK

In this letter, Mr. Green wants Dr. King to read and give an opinion on the three views of the "Black Ghetto" in the October issue of the Atlantic Monthly. Mr. Green states to Dr. King, "Our editors would be most interested in your opinions and comments".

Letter from Samuel F. Daly to MLK

The author suggests Dr. King reclaim his leadership of the civil rights movement from Stokely Carmichael and Rap Brown.

Letter from Stephen Harris to MLK

Numerous riots have occurred at Marble Mountain Air Base in Vietnam due to mounting racial tensions. Stephen Harris, of the United States Marine Corps, writes to Dr. King and Stokely Carmichael addressing his frustration and the concerns of many Negro servicemen stationed there.

Letter from The Most Worshipful Mount Olive Grand Lodge to MLK

A member of The Most Worshipful Mount Olive Grand Lodge in Milwaukee informs Dr. King of his study on the Negro voter. The study determined that Mississippi has the most non-registered Negro voters.

Letter from Thelton Henderson to MLK

Mr. Henderson, of the University of California-Berkeley, invites Dr. King to participate in a Civil Rights Symposium. Notable persons such as Robert Kennedy and Stokley Carmichael previously appeared at the symposium.

Letter from Thomas G. Carson to MLK

Thomas G. Carson writes Dr. King as a white supporter of civil rights legislation, but fed-up with what he feels are the changing views of Dr. King and the riots "committed by Negroes in the name of civil rights."

Letter from Thomas Johnson to MLK

Thomas Johnson, a reporter for the New York Times, writes to Dr. King requesting his participation in a symposium to be published in Playboy, regarding the civil rights movement.

Letter from W. B. Blix to MLK

W. B. Blix writes to Dr. King to express his support of the Civil Rights Movement. However, Blix also informs Dr. King that he has lost his support because of Dr. King's preemptive decision to commit civil disobedience if the Poor People's March on Washington is unsuccessful.

Letter to MLK from Raymond Brown

Raymond Brown writes to Dr. King admonishing him for his affiliations with Adam Clayton Powell and Stokely Carmichael and hopes that these associations are temporary.

Malcolm X Memorial Flyer

This flyer promotes a salute to American freedom and peace fighters at the Malcolm X memorial event held at Stuyvesant High School. The flyer outlines scheduled topics, speakers, and entertainers.

Malcolm X Memorial Flyer

The United Federation of Parents, Teachers and Students present the Malcolm X Memorial flyer saluting American Freedom Fighters. Honorees include LeRoi Jones, Bill Epton and Dr. Benjamin Spock. Slated guest speaker, H. Rap Brown and many other community activists/entertainers.

Manifesto of the Meredith Mississippi March

Dr. King, Stokely Carmichael, and Floyd McKissick sign the Manifesto of the Meredith Mississippi March, which represents a "public indictment and protest of the failure of American society." In solidarity, they demand courses of actions to deal with voting fraud, strengthened civil rights legislation, and impartial application of the law.

Memorandum from Benjamin F. Payton Regarding Meredith Mississippi March

Benjamin F. Payton, Executive Director of the Commission on Religion and Race of the National Council of Churches, constructs this document as a debriefing on the Meredith Mississippi March. It is evident that the march is symbolic of the nation's struggle with racial conflict and aims to dismantle fear among African American voter registration. James Meredith, Mississippi citizen and first African American to desegregate the University of Mississippi, had organized and led the march.

MLK Press Conference Regarding Telegram to President Johnson

Dr. King discusses the social destruction of riots, the high rates of unemployment, and the importance of nonviolence.

MLK Sermon: Why I Am Opposed to the War in Vietnam

Dr. King gives a sermon on why he does not support the war in Vietnam.

Negro Leaders On "Meet the Press"

This is a transcription of the Meet the Press interview with Dr. King, Stokely Carmichael, Roy Wilkins, and other leaders representing civil rights organizations. The nationally broadcasted news segment covered many pertinent social topics including demonstrations and riots, city movements, the Vietnam War, and the progression of the Civil Rights Movement. The interview structure consisted of a panel, which prompted relevant questions, and moderator Edwin Newman.

New Left Versus Old Liberals in Battle for Dr. King's Soul

Conservative syndicated columnists Rowland Evans and Robert Novak claim that Dr. King's soul is being challenged by various factions with whom he has associated. Evans and Novak question Dr. King's relationship with Stokely Carmichael by reminding him of his promise never to work with Mr. Carmichael again.

News from Southern Conference Educational Fund

The SCEF Executive Board asserts that the attack of black power is injuring the plight of democracy in the United States. The SCEF board declared "the idea of black power has a long and honorable history but it is currently being misrepresented in the news media in the United States."

Pamphlet About the Black Panther Party

This pamphlet contains historical and contextual references to the Black Panther Party. It also includes a speech by John Hulett and an interview of Stokely Carmichael highlighting the political and social movements occurring in Lowndes County, Alabama.

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