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Washington, Booker T.

b. 1856 - d. 1915

Booker T. Washington, educator, author and orator, was born into slavery in Virginia. As a child, he worked in a salt furnace and a coal mine. He graduated from Hampton Normal and Agricultural School. After studies at Wayland Seminary in Washington, D.C., he joined the Hampton staff. In 1881, Washington was selected to head a school for blacks at Tuskegee, Alabama that he developed into the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. Washington believed that blacks could best advance through industrial skills and the crafts, a position criticized by those like W. E. B. DuBois who advocated academic achievement and civil rights. His moderate views made him a leading spokesman for African Americans from 1895 to 1915. He wrote 14 books, including his autobiography Up from Slavery, which gained him an invitation to a White House dinner.

Associated Archive Content : 18 results

"Black Power" and Coalition Politics

The September 1966 issue of Commentary, a monthly publication of the American Jewish Committee, features Bayard Rustin's article "Black Power and Coalition Politics." The article discusses topics such as black power, the liberal labor civil rights coalition, the strategies of Marcus Garvey, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Booker T. Washington, and A. Philip Randolph's Freedom Budget. Rustin states that although black power is viewed as a "psychological rejection of white supremacy" those advocating for black power are seeking a "new black establishment."

Address to Members of the Hungry Club

Dr. King discusses the Negro's dilemma in an address to the members of the Hungry Club in Atlanta, Georgia. He argues that some of the challenges facing the Negro are: taking advantage of all the new federal programs, encouraging youth to go into higher education, and developing massive action programs to rid unjust systems. Dr. King also states three myths the Negro should explore: the myth of time, the myth of "exaggerated progress," and the myth of "total reliance on the boothstrap philosophy."

America's Chief Moral Dilemma

Dr. King's address to the Hungry Club highlights an array of issues that relate to America's "Moral Dilemma." Dr. King explains the three major evil dilemmas that face the nation: war, poverty, and racism.

Did President Kennedy Die in Vain

"Did President Kennedy Die In Vain" describes the author's request that we elect officials with a higher moral bearing and adherence to Christian principles.

Hungry Club Speech

Dr. King speaks on "America's Chief Moral Dilemma." He contends that the dilemma in the world is the result of three major evils: racism, poverty, and war. Dr. King encourages the audience to work toward making America a moral example for the rest of the world.

Hungry Club Speech

This document is a draft copy of Dr. King's Hungry Club Speech, in which he speaks on the subject "America's Chief Moral Dilemma." He states that the dilemma is "the means by which we live have out distanced the ends for which we live." Dr. King thoroughly discusses the three major evils that contribute to this dilemma: the evil of racism, the evil poverty, and the evil of war. He also discusses the progress of the Civil Rights Movement as it enters a new phase of fighting for "genuine equality."

Letter from Alma Weil to MLK

Alma Weil expresses deep intolerance for prejudice and further discloses a desire to support Dr. King's efforts.

Letter from Esther M. Jackson to McGeorge Bundy

Esther Jackson, a professor at Shaw University, writes George Bundy of the Ford Foundation expressing his dismay in the support of a segregated theatre. Jackson also expresses his disappointment in Dr. King and Roy Wilkins for not recognizing the discrimination taking place in form of cultural separatism.

Letter from Ms. Katherine Livermore to MLK

Ms. Livermore criticizes Dr. King for his alleged association with the Communist Party. She also makes several historical and contextual references to slavery and the current plight of the Negro race. She concludes with a warning, "be careful this summer."

Letter from Shelia Mills to MLK

Shelia Mills, a 7th grade student, commends Dr. King for his efforts within the nonviolence movement and for receiving the Nobel Peace Prize.

Letter from the Legislative Director to Senator Gaylord Nelson to MLK

William J. Springs writes Dr. King to send him the enclosed document entitled, "A Brief Account of Historic Connections Between Negro Americans and African in South Africa" by Mary Benson. The material is to be used in correlation with the hearing on American policy toward South Africa that will be held by Congressman Barratt O' Harra, Chairman of the Africa subcommittee.

Letter Regarding MLK

This letter from Dad to Frank and Mark commends Dr. Kings use of the 'march' as means to secure a better life for the Negro. The author goes on to say the integration benefits both the Negro and whites in the supply and demand of labor.

Negro Pioneers: Booker T. Washington

Lucille A. Chambers tells the story of Booker T. Washington's rise in society from his birth in Virginia to his founding of the Tuskegee Institute and the Negro Business League.

Operation Breadbasket As Vision, Promise and Hope

This report discusses the socio-economic position of Negroes as it relates to education achievement, employment opportunities, and access to power and societal institutions.

Telegram to Charles Wherry from Frances Lucas

Frances Lucas writes to Mr. Wherry in Mrs. King's stead thanking him for his kindness and congratulating him on a film project. He also conveys appreciation from Mrs. King for the memorial of her husband at California State College.

The Dilemma of The Negro

Dr. King provides an outlook on the social and political plight of the contemporary Negro. He claims "The challenge is the fact that society expects, indeed demands, that the Negro be as productive, as resourceful, as skillful and as responsible as his white brother who is not handicapped by oppression". He urges Negro citizens to capitalize on current opportunities for advancement. "The negro must not wait until the dawn of absolute emancipation...".

The Sword That Heals

Dr. King, in this article adapted from his book "Why We Can't Wait," evaluates the intimidation the Negro faces as a result of securing freedom. He uses the campaigns in Birmingham, Albany, and Montgomery as backdrops to depict how the use of nonviolent direct action causes unrelenting sacrifice in the face of grave danger. This article was published in this quarterly summer 1964 issue of "The Critic."

Wave of Violence Against Blacks

This pamphlet produced by the NAACP, New York Branch, begins with the discussion of a controversial statement made by Senator James Eastland and its adverse affect of increased violence among blacks. Eastland attacked the Supreme Court's desegregation edict by stating, "You are not required to obey any court which passes out such a ruling. In fact, you are obligated to defy it." Newspaper clippings are shown with headlines that illustrate the violence, murder, bombings, and attacks blacks faced.