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Afro-Americans--Intimidation of

Associated Archive Content : 46 results

A Chronology of Violence and Intimidation in Mississippi Since 1961

This pamphlet produced by SNCC includes a number of reported violent attacks and intimidation tactics imposed on black Mississippi citizens from January 1, 1961 through February 4, 1964.

A First Step Toward School Integration

This article on the first steps toward school integration includes a foreword by Dr. King. The article goes into some detail about the events regarding the integration of schools in Nashville, Tennessee.

A Knock At Midnight

In a tape-recorded address to the Riverside Church in New York City, Dr. King compares the civil rights struggle to a parable from St. Luke. His sermon specifically tackles contemporary social issues such as segregation, discrimination, and the philosophy of nonviolence. In addition, Dr. King explores the role of the church in dealing with such problems.

A Minority of One

In an attempt to enhance positive intergroup relations, Mrs. Porter was interviewed during "inservice education sessions" at a school of nursing. Because Mrs. Porter was "the first and only Negro who had been graduated from" the school, the faculty wanted insight into her experience of integration. Gloria M. Francis wrote this article covering the interview.

A Realistic Look at Race Relations

Dr. King gives the three views one can take regarding the state of race relations: optimism, pessimism, and realistic. Dr. King argues for a realistic stance because America has accomplished much in race relations, but still has a long way to go. He further explains that he thinks segregation is in its last days.

Address by Jackie Robinson at SCLC Freedom Dinner

Guest speaker Jackie Robinson discusses his personal struggles with adopting the philosophy of nonviolence, race relations and the far-reaching efforts of the SCLC.

Amsterdam News: The Terrible Cost of the Ballot

Dr. King excites public confidence towards the Civil Rights Movement by describing a devastating occurrence.

Anonymous Letter to MLK

In this letter addressed to Rev. Martin "Coon" King, the writer--who does not identify himself-- maintains Dr. King is "damag[ing]...the negroes [sic] cause" by focusing on giving them "handouts," as opposed to "improv[ing] their morals."

Appeal for Brotherhood to the City of Birmingham

On behalf of the Southern Alabama Movement for Human Rights and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, C. T. Vivian writes this appeal in the "spirit of nonviolent love" to the citizens of Birmingham. His purpose is to awaken conscientiousness and gain their support in creating brotherhood and a better city.

Birmingham Manifesto

The Birmingham Manifesto was formulated as a testament to explain the reasons why efforts were being made to desegregate Birmingham. According to the Manifesto, broken promises were made by city and state officials, which led to plans of direct action.

Chicago Freedom Fund Festival

The Chicago Freedom Fund Festival, organized by Mahalia Jackson, served as a benefit for the SCLC.

Civil Rights Photographic Series

These fifteen photographs chronicle several historical moments in the Civil Rights Movement.

Eulogy for Sixteenth Street Baptist Church Victims

This is Dr. King?s eulogy for three of the four young girls killed in the 1963 bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama. God gives man the right to exercise good and evil, King says, but God wills that everything will happen for the good ? that out of tragedy comes redemption. Martyred in the struggle for freedom, the girls have become symbols of the crusade and of the faith that sustains it. King speaks of forgiving those who murdered the girls and the need to transform the system, the way of life, and the philosophy that led to the bombing.

Event Program for Chester Robinson Tribute

Speaking invitation to Dr. King for a tribute to Chester Robinson and the West Side Organization at the First Congregational Church in Chicago.

House Illustrations by the Fair Housing Council in Greater Cleveland

African Americans face discrimination in several suburbs of Cleveland Ohio. The Fair housing Council developed to promote integrated housing options.

Letter from Edward Taylor to MLK

Staff Sergeant Edward Taylor, United States Army, requests Dr. King's assistance or advice in appealing his bar to reenlistment and court martial.

Letter from Margaret Long to MLK

Margaret Long asks Dr. King to reconsider his plans for the demonstration in Washington, D.C. She expresses that though she understands why Dr. King advocates for demonstrations, she does not believe it will be advantageous.

Letter from Marguerite Munson to MLK

Mrs.Munson writes Dr.King to ask for his assistance in finding a lawyer that is not corrupted by the government.

Letter from MLK to Attorney General Robert Kennedy

Dr. King writes to Attorney General Robert Kennedy requesting an investigation in Williamston, NC to relieve the Negro community from violence and "unconstitutional police action."

Letter from MLK to Hal Lenke

Dr. King thanks Hal Lenke for investigating the situation in Huntsville, Alabama and reporting his findings to SCLC. He is currently considering Lenke's suggestions. Lenke later coordinated press relations for Resurrection City, the Poor People’s Campaign encampment in Washington, DC.

Letter from MLK to Mrs. Geiser

Dr. King offers praise and support to Mrs. Geiser for her efforts to teach her children tolerance in the face of bigotry and racial hatred.

Letter from Richard Beal to MLK

Mr. Beal informs Dr. King that he believes the best way for African Americans to gain the support of Caucasian Americans is for them to earn their respect.

Letter from Stephen Harris to MLK

Numerous riots have occurred at Marble Mountain Air Base in Vietnam due to mounting racial tensions. Stephen Harris, of the United States Marine Corps, writes to Dr. King and Stokely Carmichael addressing his frustration and the concerns of many Negro servicemen stationed there.

MLK Notes - Voting Issues and Strategies

These handwritten notes of Dr. King's, found on the back of a memorandum, focus largely on voter registration issues and strategies. Of interest is an item adjacent to the body of the notes remarking, "Daddy King has yet to understand non-violence."

MLK Requests Federal Protection from US Attorney General

Dr. King sends this urgent request for protection to US Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach. Negro citizens were brutalized while protesting the arrest of James Orange. Alabama State Troopers prevented protestors from seeking medical attention by refusing to allow them to leave Zion Methodist Church.

New York Times: The Case Against Tokenism

In this article for the New York Times, Dr. King writes of his experiences in an Albany, GA jail. Furthermore, he submits the idea that a delayed response to integration and equality for all is no longer acceptable due to the Negro having a "new sense of somebodiness."

News from SCEF Regarding Police Raids

As a result of a police raid on the offices of the SCEF and its officers, two of their top officers were arrested and their records and papers were seized. The White Citizens Council praised the Louisiana Joint Legislative Committee on Un-American Activities for instigating the raids, while numerous other committees strongly denounced the raids.

Pathos and Hope

Dr. King speaks about a trip to the Mississippi Delta where he first witnessed hope and pathos simultaneously.

People In Action: Birmingham, U.S.A.

In this first of a two-part article for the New York Amsterdam News, Dr. King writes about the circumstances surrounding SCLC’s decision to develop Project C, a campaign confronting racial injustice in Birmingham. Three factors led to the decision. First, the city was the home of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights, SCLC’s strongest affiliate. Second, Birmingham represented the hard-core segregationist South. And third, the South’s largest industrial center was suffering economically from the loss of vital industry and its poor image on race relations.

People in Action: Most Abused Man in Nation

This article by Dr. King, published in his "People in Action" series in the New York Amsterdam News, describes the national and local reaction to the Birmingham jailing of Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth and J. S. Phifer.

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