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Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.)

Founded in April 1960 at Shaw University by Ella Baker and student activists, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) began with a series of sit-ins in Raleigh, North Carolina, inspired by similar actions in Greensboro. Marion Barry was SNCC’s first chairman. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) provided SNCC with an $80,000 grant, but the two groups were often in conflict. SNCC participated in the Freedom Rides, voter registration and efforts to desegregate public facilities. In 1963, SNCC chairman John Lewis spoke at the March on Washington. At the time of the 1965 Selma marches, the ideological split within SNCC intensified. In May 1966, Stokely Carmichael assumed leadership and steered the organization away from its commitment to nonviolence and racial inclusion. SNCC became an engine of the Black Power movement. With Carmichael’s departure and the rise of the Black Panther Party, SNCC declined in membership, finances and activity by the end of the decade.

Associated Archive Content : 171 results

"Black Power" and Coalition Politics

The September 1966 issue of Commentary, a monthly publication of the American Jewish Committee, features Bayard Rustin's article "Black Power and Coalition Politics." The article discusses topics such as black power, the liberal labor civil rights coalition, the strategies of Marcus Garvey, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Booker T. Washington, and A. Philip Randolph's Freedom Budget. Rustin states that although black power is viewed as a "psychological rejection of white supremacy" those advocating for black power are seeking a "new black establishment."

"They are Waiting for Godot in Mississippi, Too"

This article, posted in the New York Times, discusses the play, "Waiting for Godot," held by the Free Southern Theatre in Mississippi. The play focuses on racial and social issues dealing with civil rights.

A Chronology of Violence and Intimidation in Mississippi Since 1961

This pamphlet produced by SNCC includes a number of reported violent attacks and intimidation tactics imposed on black Mississippi citizens from January 1, 1961 through February 4, 1964.

A Promising Day for the City of Selma

In this handwritten public statement, the author addresses the Negro citizens of Selma, Alabama by commending their efforts of non-violence during a one-thousand person demonstration for equal voting rights.

Albany Manifesto

The "Albany Manifesto" declares the Albany Movement to be uncompromisingly opposed to segregation. The manifesto positions the group to continue to exercise its free speech and free assembly rights to protest segregation. Protesters insist upon the speedy resolution of the charges against seven hundred protesters that had been languishing for more than six months.

Albany Manifesto

In support of the Albany Movement, the Albany Manifesto was drafted to make clear what the proponents of the cause sought to resolve.

Amsterdam News: The Terrible Cost of the Ballot

Dr. King excites public confidence towards the Civil Rights Movement by describing a devastating occurrence.

An Address by MLK at the 53rd Convention of the NAACP

Dr. King makes an address at the 53rd Convention of the National Association for the Advancement of Color People in Atlanta disputing the myths of the civil rights movement. In addition to expressing appreciation for the organization's work, Dr. King apologizes for the prejudice the NAACP had to endure in making accommodations for the conference in Atlanta.

An Edition of the SCLC Newsletter

This April/May 1964 SCLC newsletter highlights the recent accomplishments of the SCLC and its members. Some of the topics discussed are the 50-mile march from Selma to Montgomery, Ben Hooks' recent judicial appointment, and Dr. King being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

Answers in the American Way

This text derives from a television show outlining the facts of the Black Panther Party. In attendance were civil rights activist like Dr. King, Stokely Carmichael, H. Rapp Brown and their affiliates within the Civil Rights Movement.

Atlanta Workshop in Nonviolence Newsletter

This newsletter, Volume I Number 4, is published by Henry and Sue Bass of Atlanta. They write about the Atlanta Peace Parade, an anti-Vietnam protest to take place on August 6, 1967. The Atlanta Peace Parade would become the south's first major peace parade, about which the Basses write President Johnson was worried, calling for counter-demonstrations.

Background of the Speakers

This document lists speakers for rallies in New York and San Francisco and gives a short biography of each person. The speakers include people such as Dr. Benjamin Spock, Dr. King, Rev. James Bevel, Floyd McKissick, Julian Bond and others. The document also lists folk singers for each rally location, a list that includes Pete Seeger.

Biographical Sketch of James Bevel

This one page biography summarizes the achievements of James Bevel, one of the founding members of SNCC. The biography highlights Bevel's involvement with civil rights drives in Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi, including the Freedom Rides and numerous SCLC action programs.

Black Americans Take the Lead in War Protest

In this press release, the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam has mustered a significant following of supporters who are in staunch opposition to United States involvement in Vietnam. Black community leaders such as Stokley Carmichael, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and Rev. James Bevel reflect the growing discontent of blacks who "view this war as a war against a colored people" merely serving the economic interests of America.

Black Power

This is a chapter sermon for Dr. King's book "Where Do We Go From Here?" The civil rights leader traces the early development of Black Power and its eventual surge onto the national political scene. Though understood as a direct opposition to the nonviolent movement that organizations like SCLC, CORE, and SNCC originally supported, King describes Black Power as a "disappointment wrapped in despair."

Black Power - Dr. Vincent Harding

Dr. Harding gives a full detailed presentation on Black Power before the Southeastern Regional Advisory Board of the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith.

Black Power and the American Christ

The Christian Century published this article by historian and civil rights activist Vincent Harding in its June 4, 1967 issue. In the essay, Harding, friend, associate, and speech writer for Dr. King, claims that Eurocentric Christianity antagonized the Black Power Movement.

Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America

Stokely Carmichael and Dr. Charles Hamilton are in partnership with SNCC to promote the Black Power Movement. SNCC creates "freedom gifts" to provide the community with the expression of the "humanistic spirit" and goal of the movement. These freedom gifts range from posters, poetry, calendars, and more.

Black Power: Two Views

James Peck, a white civil rights activist, writes an article concerning the path of the Civil Rights Movement. He is beginning to notice that black power and black racism are taking over organizations that had been focused on nonviolence and racial equality.

CEP News

The Citizenship Education Program of the SCLC, in cooperation with the American Missionary Association issue this periodic publication that includes updates of the organization's progress, current events and other news of interest.

Citizens' Crusade Against Poverty Press Release

The Citizens' Crusade Against Poverty issues a news release regarding the start of a three-year program to train 1000 poverty workers. Walter P. Reuther's statement came after the Ford Foundation announced a starter grant for the program.

Civil Rights Symposium Program

This document is a program from a symposium workshop on national and local civil rights challenges.

Co-Op Movements for Black Economic Development

This memorandum sent to Dr. King by Professor St. Clair Drake, is a full proposal for the development/revival of the co-operative movements among negroes in large urban centers.

Conference on Strengthening the New Politics

Paul Albert forwards this letter to all individuals invited to and interested in the Shoreham Conference, in which Liberals address the shortcomings of American politics.

Conference on Strengthening the New Politiics

The Conference on Strengthening the New Politics was formed from a desire to have real constituencies who have control over their elected officials and a concern for local grassroots political development. It is the hope of this conference that the styles of liberalism and the Civil Rights Movement could come together to form a new elective politic.

Correspondence to MLK from D. Leon Everett II

D. Leon Everett is notifying Dr. King that he will be sending two checks from his church for the SCLC and SNCC. He offers his continuous support for the movement. He makes mention of information in regards to holding a recital for Mrs. King and a souvenir book

Diary in Jail

Dr. King wrote a personal diary of his day-to-day experiences while in an Albany, Georgia jail for attempting to pray in front of City Hall. He pledged to return to jail, if necessary, if the City Commission refused to negotiate with Negro leaders on demands for immediate desegregation of all public facilities.

Draft of Showdown for Nonviolence

This is a draft, with Dr. King's revisions, of the article "Showdown for Nonviolence" for Look Magazine. The article was published posthumously on April 16, 1968.

Elmer Evans Advocates for Black Power

"A white caucasian" advocates for black power, claiming that it is synonymous with sovereign power. Responding to a televised discussion on the subject of black power, Elmer Evans aims to challenge what he felt was inaccurately presented on the show.

Fact Sheet on the Raid of the SCEF

This document highlights the raid on the New Orleans headquarters of the Southern Conference Educational Fund by State and City Police.

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