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Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.)

Founded in April 1960 at Shaw University by Ella Baker and student activists, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) began with a series of sit-ins in Raleigh, North Carolina, inspired by similar actions in Greensboro. Marion Barry was SNCC’s first chairman. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) provided SNCC with an $80,000 grant, but the two groups were often in conflict. SNCC participated in the Freedom Rides, voter registration and efforts to desegregate public facilities. In 1963, SNCC chairman John Lewis spoke at the March on Washington. At the time of the 1965 Selma marches, the ideological split within SNCC intensified. In May 1966, Stokely Carmichael assumed leadership and steered the organization away from its commitment to nonviolence and racial inclusion. SNCC became an engine of the Black Power movement. With Carmichael’s departure and the rise of the Black Panther Party, SNCC declined in membership, finances and activity by the end of the decade.

The Southern Leaders Conference on Transportation and Non-Violent Integration issued this statement. The document states that a world-wide campaign for social and political freedom shows an international plight for human dignity. As America is one of the two most powerful nations in the world, "the unresolved problem of civil rights becomes the most crucial issue." There is contradiction between the freedom America proclaims and the actual practice of civil liberties and democracy. Dr.

This seemingly unexceptional document signifies the birth of the SCLC. Dr. King, Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth and Rev. C. K. Steele assembled a consortium of leaders in Atlanta following the end of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The Southern Leaders Conference on Transportation and Non-Violent Integration issued this statement that addresses the intimidation, discrimination and economic disparity Negroes face in the South. The statement appeals to the federal government to intervene against assaults that block basic civil rights.

The Southern Leaders Conference on Transportation and Non-Violent Integration issued this statement to the nation regarding the unresolved problems of civil rights. The leaders asked for all Negroes, particularly those in the South, to assert their human dignity and to seek justice by rejecting all injustices.

In this proposal, the Office of Economic Opportunity states that the Administration would like to fund the National Alliance of Businessmen out of the Office of Economic Opportunity appropriations. The Administration also doesn't wish to seek supplemental funds for special summer programs. These decisions could result in a reduction of funding in various programs like Head Start and Job Corps.

Lawyer William Kunstler writes this thank you to Dr. and Mrs. King and discusses a few legal matters.

An early foreshadowing of his nonviolent philosophy, Dr. King advises Negroes of a particular course of action they should adhere to in order to properly equip themselves to combat racial injustice. Seeking to avoid both complacency and hostility, he challenges those who desire self-satisfaction, as well as those who seek to pacify their oppressors, by proposing the idea of one having both a tough mind and a tender heart.

"A Tough Mind and a Tender Heart" by Dr. King discusses the importance of creating a synthesis of opposites and characteristics of one engaged in shrewd thinking with a loving spirit.

This outline to Dr. King's sermon "A Tough Mind and a Tender Heart" focuses on the premise that being a tough minded individual involves making critical decisions. The sermon emphasizes that those who possess a soft mind tend to be gullible and strictly follow the status quo. According to Dr. King, "We must come to the realization that life demands a tough mind."

Dr. King uses Matthew 10:16 as the text for this sermon delivered August 30, 1959 at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery. Soft mindedness, he asserts, makes men gullible, superstitious, and fearful of change and fosters the belief that science and religion are in conflict. It contributes to racial prejudice and is capitalized upon by dictators. But tough mindedness, King says, must be tempered by a compassionate heart. The nonviolent struggle for freedom and justice must combine tough mindedness and tenderness of heart.

Several organizations in Stamford, Connecticut sponsor a tribute in honor of Dr. King. This document outlines the program participants, and lists Dr. King as providing the keynote address.

The Jewish Labor Committee extends heartfelt gratitude to the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) for twenty-five years of fraternal cooperation.

Cleveland Robinson, Secretary Treasurer of AFL-CIO District 65 Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union, writes to Dr. King with several suggestions for the upcoming SCLC convention.

Dr. King quotes Alfred North Whitehead's view of the philosophy of science in The Concept of Nature.

These meeting minutes of the Executive Board of the A. Philip Randolph Institute include discussions on the urgent need for legislative action on the Freedom Budget, a possible theoretical and analytical magazine on the Negro struggle for equality, and celebration of Mr. Randolph's 80th birthday.

This document outlines the schedule of events during the A. Philip Randolph Institute orientation, an organization focused on racial equality and economic justice.

Peggy Whedon, producer of ABC's "Issues and Answers" program, expresses disappointment that Dr. King may not appear on the show the coming weekend because of a strike.

Dr. King sat down with Tom Jerriel, Atlanta Bureau Chief, and John Casserly, Washington Correspondent, of the American Broadcasting Company for their program "Issues and Answers." They discussed the civil rights movement, Dr. King's upcoming book, and the U.S. Supreme Court ruling that Dr. King would serve jail time in Birmingham.

Dr. King quotes 12th century French philosopher Peter Abelard on the relationship between doubt, inquiry and truth.

Dr. King references Peter Abelard, medieval French philosopher and theologian. He discerns that universals cannot be things or words. Rather, the universal is a concept. King maintains that this quandary is relevant to "Schoolmen" and particularly the dogma of the Church. He continues by also noting philosopher Rene Descartes, and that "he was at fault in overemphasizing mathematical method."

This document is an abstract entitled "The Role of the Behavioral Scientist in the Civil Rights Movement," with references to Dr. King's viewpoint.

Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s abstract of his doctoral dissertation in Systematic Theology at Boston University details the fundamental problem of evaluating the concept of God in the philosophical and theological thoughts of Paul Tillich and Nelson Wieman; methods of procedure implemented throughout his research; and his conclusions drawn from the teachings of Tillich and Wieman.

In this letter, Mr.Henry informs Mr.Smith that he has been accepted to Tuskegee Institute.

Dr. King accepts the New York City Medallion on behalf of all persons, both black and white, involved in the fight for social justice and equality.

A standard form of an acknowledgment response, in reference to the receipt of condolences, is highlighted in this document.

This is a detailed acronym for the term "Black Power."

Adolf G. H. Kreiss shows his immense support and gratitude for Dr. King's fight for equality with an acrostic poem using the initials of the civil rights leader.

This publication highlights collaborative efforts to support and expand the International Planned Parenthood Federation. The document highlights statistical data demonstrating the organization's successes in "voluntary fertility control," and references Planned Parenthood's conference scheduled in autumn 1966.

Dr. King quotes philosopher Alfred North Whitehead's "Religion in the Making." He interprets the phases in events and how such events are perceived.

This augmentation was intended to be included in Dr. King's "Pilgrimage to Nonviolence" essay published in the Christian Century on April 13, 1960. In the appendage, Dr. King discusses the personal afflictions he has endured as a result of his civil rights work including death threats, bombings of his home, and a near fatal stabbing. He states that suffering has a "redemptive quality" and discusses how he transformed his personal suffering into a "creative force" instead of reacting with bitterness.