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Farmer, James, 1920-1999

b. 1920 - d. 1999

James Farmer was one of the foremost tacticians and theorists of nonviolence during the Civil Rights Movement. A native of Marshall, Texas, he was educated at Wiley College and Howard University. As a student of Howard Thurman, Farmer learned of Gandhi’s nonviolent tactics and became interested in their application in the black freedom struggle. In 1942 he co-founded the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) with an interracial group of students. As the organization’s first national director, he organized the 1961 Freedom Rides to test the U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling on interstate bus transportation in the South. Farmer also worked with the National Association for the Advancement of colored People (NAACP) and the Fellowship for Reconciliation. On January 12, 1998 he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Bill Clinton.

Associated Archive Content : 28 results

Article Briefly Summarizing MLK's Life, Leadership and Accomplishments

This article acknowledges the many accomplishments made by Dr. King. The writer cites the various highlights of Dr. King's work and maintains "...America will never be the same."

Biographical Sketches of Leaders of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

These are biographical sketches of various leaders who were involved in the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedoms. These distinguished individuals were involved in organizations that focused on equality and nonviolence.

Black Power: Two Views

James Peck, a white civil rights activist, writes an article concerning the path of the Civil Rights Movement. He is beginning to notice that black power and black racism are taking over organizations that had been focused on nonviolence and racial equality.

Civil-Righters Isolation

David Lawrence states that the recent initiatives of Negro leaders are hindering the overall mission of the Civil Rights Movement. He believes that Negro groups are defeating their own cause.

Final Plans for the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

This final organizing manual for the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom details all logistics of the march, including the purpose of the march and accommodations for arriving in Washington, D.C.

Letter from A. Phillip Randolph to MLK

Mr. Randolph addresses his concerns with current events that could potentially harm the Civil Rights Movement. His list of developments includes Malcolm X's promotion of rifle clubs, the use of propaganda tactics to separate white people from the Civil Rights Movement, the increasing totalitarian influence on protest groups in northern cities and demagogic leadership that creates confusion and frustration. Mr. Randolph requests a meeting to discuss how to address these issues.

Letter from A. William Loos to James Farmer

A. William Loos expresses his agreement with the actions of the recipient, James Farmer, which lead to the reconsideration of a vote to remove United States troops from Vietnam.

Letter from Arthur Spence to MLK

Spence writes Dr. King defending the critical perceptions that some whites hold of blacks. As an African American, Spence feels that some members of his race have developed bad habits.

Letter from Dora McDonald to MLK about CORE National Convention

This response letter dated June 11, 1964, was sent from Ms. McDonald, secretary of Dr. King to Mr. James Farmer. She states that while Dr. King will not be able to attend the CORE National Convention, he will send a representative from the SCLC to the meeting.

Letter from Grace Graham to MLK

Grace Graham, Chairman in the School of Education extends an invitation for Dr. King to give a series of lectures at several colleges in the Northwest. In addition to the University Oregon, other colleges include Montana State and Portland State.

Letter from Grandison Cherry-El to MLK

Grandison Cherry-El, Minister with The Moorish Science Temple of America, contacts US Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbak in reference to discrimination in citizenship in American public schools.

Letter from James A. Farmer to MLK

Mr. Farmer thanks Dr. King on behalf of the Riverside Church for being their guest speaker. He tells Dr. King of the positive reaction that he received on his sermon.

Letter from James Farmer to MLK

Chairman J. Farmer gives Dr. King a report from the National Advisory Committee of CORE.

Letter from Louis Braun to MLK

The National Chairman of the Campus Americans for Democratic Action reminds Dr. King of an earlier letter in which Dr. King was invited to serve on the organization's advisory board. Braun also lists individuals who have agreed to serve on the board.

Letter from MLK to James Farmer

Dr. King sends James Farmer a complimentary copy of a journal on the works of the SCLC.

Letter from Taconic Foundation to MLK

Stephen Currier, President of the Taconic Foundation, invites Dr. King to attend a meeting about the development of a new program. Currier lists other individuals who have been invited to serve as consultants and who will provide "an evaluation of Negro gains up to the present."

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom Pamphlet

This pamphlet promotes the historic March on Washington of August 28, 1963. The pamphlet calls upon Congress to pass civil rights legislation and end the "twin evils of discrimination and economic deprivation" that plague the nation.

March to Washington Strategic Planning

This document outlines key strategies concerning the upcoming March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963. The one-day civil rights demonstration intends to bring national attention to the social and economic injustices afflicting millions of American citizens.

Memorandum from Dr. King

Dr. King addresses this memorandum to the organizers of a "Stall In" at the World's Fair. He advises against the demonstration and only advises it when "persistent attempts at good faith negotiations have completely failed."

Memorandum from James Framer to CORE Group Leaders

Jamer Framer, National Director of CORE, outlines several examples of legal and "extra-legal" harrassment of CORE and Freedom Riders by Mississippi officials.

Memorandum from MLK and the World's Fair

This is a draft for Dr. King's correspondence regarding the endorsement of the "Stall In" at The World's Fair. The mass demonstration is lead by the Unity Council, of which Dr. King is associated with. Though he does not agree with the demonstration, he assures that his solidarity with the Council members remains.

Message from James Farmer About March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

James Farmer issues a message from the Donaldsonville Jail regarding the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. He regrets that he is unable to attend the event, but he supports the goals of the March.

Minutes of National Action Council Meeting

The National Action Council, a sector of the Congress of Racial Equality, hosts a regional meeting in Miami, Florida where they will vote on council member positions, as well as regional and national NAC meeting logistics.

Negro Leaders' Mistakes Hurting Civil Rights

In this article, David Lawrence explains his dissatisfaction with "Negro leaders" for supporting the actions of Adam Clayton Powell, who in Lawrence's mind, has abused his office and trust.

SCLC Newsletter: September 1961

This September 1961 SCLC newsletter opens with a description of the Annual Convention scheduled to take place later that month in Nashville, Tennessee. The next section includes brief biographies of Harry Belefonte and South African singer Miriam Makeba, both slated to star in the convention's opening benefit concert. This section also outlines the advances SCLC made in its Leadership Training Program and future plans for the Citizenship Program, dedicated to increasing literacy in southern states.

Speeches by the Leaders

In this booklet, the NAACP compiled famous speeches from the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Included are speeches from A. Philip Randolph, Roy Wilkins, James Farmer, Rev. Eugene Carson Blake, Rabbi Joachim Prinz, Whitney M. Young, Matthew Ahmann, John Lewis, Walter Reuther, and Dr. King. The booklet concludes with a pledge and a picture of the throng of supporters that attended the event. test

Telegram from Dr. Benjamin Spock to MLK

Mr. Spock invites Dr. King to send a representative to a discussion on the upcoming Washington Vietnam Mobilization.

Telegram from Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr. to MLK

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. requests the presence of Dr. King to serve on a panel discussing Title VII and Equal Employment. The Department of Labor event also included civil rights lumaniaries such as A. Philip Randolph, Roy Wilkins, James Farmer and Whitney Young. Roosevelt, fifth child of the late president Franklin Delano Roosevelt, served as the Chairman of the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission from May 26, 1965 to May 11, 1966.