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Civil Rights Movements

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"Are We Ready"

This column by Joseph D. Bibb makes the argument that not only is "the colored American" ready for his civil rights, but also it is hypocritical to deny him those rights given the ignorance and savagery of many of his white counterparts.

"Barnett Says JFK Aids Reds"

In a testimony before the Senate Commerce Committee, Mississippi Governor Ross R. Barnett expresses his staunch opposition to President Kennedy's recent civil rights legislation. Governor Barnett goes as far as to associate recent Communist Party activities to the recent "racial agitation, strife, and conflict" emerging from the Civil Rights Movement.

"Black Power" and Coalition Politics

The September 1966 issue of Commentary, a monthly publication of the American Jewish Committee, features Bayard Rustin's article "Black Power and Coalition Politics." The article discusses topics such as black power, the liberal labor civil rights coalition, the strategies of Marcus Garvey, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Booker T. Washington, and A. Philip Randolph's Freedom Budget. Rustin states that although black power is viewed as a "psychological rejection of white supremacy" those advocating for black power are seeking a "new black establishment."

"Danger in Demonstrations"

This article, from the newspaper "Chicago's American," criticizes Dr. King's demonstrations on open housing in Chicago.

"Dr. King Outdated"

This editorial reviews Dr. King's last book, "Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community?" Under the heading "Dr. King Outdated." The review expresses Mr. Bob Smith's disagreement with many themes of the book.

"In a Word-Now" by MLK

In the attainment of civil rights, Dr. King stresses the importance and urgency of "NOW". He further expounds on the immediate and effective actions that should be exercised by the Federal government to better the society.

"Meaning of Georgia Elections"

Dr. King speaks about the Southern Christian Leadership Conference's Summer Community Organization and Political Education Project (SCOPE). He also talks about the political advancements that were made in the south.

53rd Annual NAACP Convention

Serving as an itinerary for the 53rd Annual NAACP Convention, this document outlines the schedule, location, and speakers of the seven-day event.

A Christian Movement in a Revolutionary Age

In this address, Dr. King fuses the philosophies in the Old and New Testament regarding revolutionary social change. He argues that the most creative and constructive revolutionary force for change is one that combines the Old Testament’s “righteousness and justice that flow down like a mighty stream” with the New Testament’s call to love one’s enemies and bless those who persecute you. He asserts that God has been working actively since the time of Moses for the freedom and perfection of people and society. Dr.

A Manual for Direct Action

In this foreword Bayard Rustin provides an introduction into the rules and tips involved in nonviolent action concerning protests. Mr. Rustin describes nonviolent methods that people can use when encountering dangerous or difficult situations.

A Message from Jail

After being arrested and charged with parading without a license, Dr. King wrote a column from jail. The column shared his and Ralph David Abernathy's decision to serve the jail sentence instead of paying a fine of $178.

A Statement to the South and Nation

This seemingly unexceptional document signifies the birth of the SCLC. Dr. King, Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth and Rev. C. K. Steele assembled a consortium of leaders in Atlanta following the end of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The Southern Leaders Conference on Transportation and Non-Violent Integration issued this statement that addresses the intimidation, discrimination and economic disparity Negroes face in the South. The statement appeals to the federal government to intervene against assaults that block basic civil rights.

A. Philip Randolph Institute Orientation Agenda

This document outlines the schedule of events during the A. Philip Randolph Institute orientation, an organization focused on racial equality and economic justice.

ABC's Issues and Answers: MLK Interview

Dr. King sat down with Tom Jerriel, Atlanta Bureau Chief, and John Casserly, Washington Correspondent, of the American Broadcasting Company for their program "Issues and Answers." They discussed the civil rights movement, Dr. King's upcoming book, and the U.S. Supreme Court ruling that Dr. King would serve jail time in Birmingham.

Address Before the United Packinghouse Workers of America

At their Thirteenth Constitutional Convention in Minneapolis on May 21, 1962, Dr. King praises the United Packinghouse Workers Union of America for their dedication to civil rights. He states that the civil rights and labor movements share in common a concern for minimum wages, social security, health benefits, decent housing, job security and retirement security. He thanks them for the aid that they have provided and encourages them to continue fighting for equality.

Address by Jackie Robinson at SCLC Freedom Dinner

Guest speaker Jackie Robinson discusses his personal struggles with adopting the philosophy of nonviolence, race relations and the far-reaching efforts of the SCLC.

Address by MLK to American Jewish Committee

In this speech, Dr. King addresses the Civil Rights Movement and the use of nonviolent demonstration tactics. He distinguishes between civil disobedience, which involves breaking laws that one does not agree with, and nonviolent demonstration, which involves using one's right to protest. He states that nonviolent protest is inherently American, citing examples from the Civil War, the Suffragettes, and the American Jewish Committee's own lobbying from the early 20th Century.

Address by MLK to the Hungry Club

Dr. King addresses the members of The Hungry Club on the dilemma of "Negroes" obtaining complete equality. He refers to several passages from his "I Have a Dream" speech.

Address by MLK to the National Press Club

During an address to the National Press Club in Washington, Dr. King declares the time for racial justice has arrived.

Address to AFL-CIO New York City District 65

Dr. King speaks to the District 65 AFL-CIO to address the importance of job opportunities in the northern and southern regions of the United States. He explains that the labor movement must stay active in order to gain civil rights and equal pay for African American workers.

Address to Members of the Hungry Club

Dr. King discusses the Negro's dilemma in an address to the members of the Hungry Club in Atlanta, Georgia. He argues that some of the challenges facing the Negro are: taking advantage of all the new federal programs, encouraging youth to go into higher education, and developing massive action programs to rid unjust systems. Dr. King also states three myths the Negro should explore: the myth of time, the myth of "exaggerated progress," and the myth of "total reliance on the boothstrap philosophy."

Address to the National Bar Association

Dr. King shares with the National Bar Association of Milwaukee, the history of segregation and why African Americans fight for equality.

Affidavit of Captain G.V. Evans

G.V. Evans, a captain in the Police Department of the City of Birmingham, confirms a series of sit-ins and marches that took place in Birmingham. The nonviolent actions, called Project C, was headed by Wyatt Tee Walker. Captain Evans believes that this conduct will result in serious injury to the police department and the demonstrators.

Affidavit of Theo R. Wright

In an attempt to redirect the focus of Negro students in Birmingham, Superintendent Theo R. Wright presents a sworn affidavit detailing his responsibilities and plans to revitalize the educational direction of Birmingham Public Schools.

American Foundation on Nonviolence Board Meeting

Harry W. Wachtel reports the minutes of the American Foundation of Nonviolence Board Meeting held in New York City, New York.

American Journal: Let Justice Roll Down

Carey McWilliams writes to Dr. King to inform him his article, "Let Justice Roll Down," was included in the American Journal, a publication by the US Information Service aimed at representing opinions and current subjects of interest in the United States. This edition, published in 1965, was he 5th year in a row Dr. King had contributed an article describing the tempo of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.

Americans Need Some Discipline

This Daily Californian editorial calls for "self-restraint" in civil rights demonstrations and a return to the "hard work, thrift, and adherence to the moral precepts that form the basis for this democracy." It continues to maintain that gratuitous demonstrations cause racial riots and violence, provoking the "wrath of whites who resent Negro intrusion in their neighborhoods" and thus undermine political support for Dr. King's cause. Dr.

Amsterdam News: The Terrible Cost of the Ballot

Dr. King excites public confidence towards the Civil Rights Movement by describing a devastating occurrence.

An Address by MLK at the 53rd Convention of the NAACP

Dr. King makes an address at the 53rd Convention of the National Association for the Advancement of Color People in Atlanta disputing the myths of the civil rights movement. In addition to expressing appreciation for the organization's work, Dr. King apologizes for the prejudice the NAACP had to endure in making accommodations for the conference in Atlanta.

An Ambitious Dream Confronts Reality

Dr. King talks about the Summer Community Organization and Political Education Project (SCOPE) as well as the political changes that have occurred in Georgia.

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